1.20. Illustrate the division algorithm for m = 22, n =
11; m = 33, n = 45; m = 277,

n = 4.

1.21. Prove the existence part of the Division Algorithm. (Hint: Given n and m,

how will you define q? Once you choose this q, then how is r chosen? Then show
that

0 ≤ r ≤ n − 1.)

1.22. Prove the uniqueness part of the Division Algorithm. (Hint: If nq + r = nq'
+ r',

then nq − nq' = r' − r. Use what you know about r and r' as part of your
argument that

q = q'.)

1.23. Theorem. Let a, b, and n be integers with n > 0. Then a ≡ b (mod n) if and

only if a and b have the same remainder when divided by n. Equivalently, a ≡ b
(mod n) if

and only if when and
, then

Definitions.

1. The greatest common divisor of two integers a and b is
the largest

integer d such that d|a and d|b. The greatest common divisor of two integers a
and b is

denoted gcd(a, b) or (a, b).

2. If gcd(a, b) = 1, then a and b are said to be relatively prime.

1.24. Question. Find (36, 22), (45,−15), (296,−88), (0, 256), and (15, 28).

1.25. Theorem. Let a, n, b, r, and k be integers. If a = nb + r and k|a and k|b,
then

k|r.

1.26. Theorem. Let and
be integers. If
, then (a, b) =

Similarly, if
, then

1.27. Question. As an illustration of the above theorem, note that

51 = 3 · 15 + 6

15 = 2 · 6 + 3

6 = 2 · 3 + 0.

Show that if a = 51 and b = 15, then (51, 15) = (6, 3) = 3.

1.28. Question (Euclidean Algorithm). Using the previous
theorem and the Division

Algorithm successively, devise a procedure for finding the greatest common
divisor of two

integers.

1.29. Use the Euclidean Algorithm to find (96, 112), (288, 166), and (175, 24).

1.30. Find integers x and y such that 175x + 24y = 1.

1.31. Theorem. Let a and b be integers. The greatest common divisor of a and b
equals

1 (i.e., (a, b) = 1) if and only if there exist integers x and y such that ax +
by = 1.

(Note: This theorem is an ‘if and only if’ theorem, so you must prove two
theorems: (1) If

(a, b) = 1, then there exist integers x and y such that ax + by = 1. And (2) If
there exist

integers x and y with ax + by = 1, then (a, b) = 1. The hint for the first part
is to use the

Euclidean Algorithm. Do some examples by taking some pairs of relatively prime
integers,

doing the Euclidean Algorithm, and seeing how to find the x and y. It is a good
idea to start

with an example where the Euclidean Algorithm takes just one step , then do an
example

where the Euclidean Algorithm takes two steps, then three steps, then look for a
general

procedure.)

1.32. Theorem. For any integers a and b, there are integers x and y such that
ax+by =

(a, b).

1.33. Theorem. Let a, b, and c be integers. If a|bc and (a, b) = 1, then a|c.

Theorems 1.30 and 1.31 begin to address the question : Given integers a, b, and
c, when

do there exist integers x and y that satisfy the equation ax+by = c? When we
seek integer

solutions to an equation , the equation is called a Diophantine equation.

1.34. Question. Suppose there is a solution to the linear Diophantine equation
ax +

by = c. What condition does c satisfy in terms of a and b ?

1.35. Question. Make a conjecture by completing the following theorem statement.

Conjecture. Given integers a, b, and c, there exist integers x and y that
satisfy the equation

ax + by = c if and only if . Prove your
conjecture.

1.36. Theorem. Given integers a, b, and c, there exist integers x and y that
satisfy the

equation ax + by = c if and only if (a, b)|c.

1.37. Question. For integers a, b, and c, consider the
linear Diophantine equation

ax + by = c. Suppose integers
and
satisfy the equation,
that is, . What

other values , and
, also satisfy ax+by = c? Formulate a
conjecture that

answers this question. Devise some numerical examples to ground your
exploration. For

example, 6(−2) + 15 · 2 = 18. Can you find other integers x and y such that 6x +
15y = 4?

How many other pairs of integers x and y can you find? Can you find infinitely
many other

solutions?

1.38. Question (Euler). A farmer lays out the sum of 1,770 crowns in purchasing

horses and oxen. He pays 31 crowns for each horse and 21 crowns for each ox.
What are

the possible numbers of horses and oxen that the farmer bought?

1.39. Theorem. Let a, b, c, , and
be integers such that . Then

the integers and
also satisfy the linear Diophantine equation

ax + by = c.

1.40. Question. If a, b, and c are integers and the linear Diophantine equation
ax+ by =

c has at least one integer solution, find a general expression for all the
integer solutions to

that equation. Prove your conjecture.

1.41. Theorem. Let a, b, c, be integers. Then the equation ax + by = c has a
solution

if and only if (a, b)|c. If is a
solution, that is, , then for every integer
k,

the integers and
also satisfy the linear Diophantine equation

ax + by = c. Moreover, every solution to the linear Diophantine equation ax + by
= c is of

this form.

1.42. Theorem. If a and b are integers and k is a natural number, then gcd(ka,
kb) =

k gcd(a, b).

1.43. Formulate a definition. For natural numbers a and b, give a suitable
definition

for the least common multiple of a and b , denoted lcm (a, b). Construct and
compute some

examples.

1.44. Theorem. If a and b are natural numbers, then gcd(a, b) lcm(a, b) = ab.

1.45. Corollary. If a and b are natural numbers, then lcm(a, b) = ab if and only
if

gcd(a, b) = 1.

1.46. Big Picture Question: How are the ideas of greatest common divisor and
solutions

to linear Diophantine equations related?