  Textbooks for High School Students Studying the Mathematics

42.1 Introduction

Activity :: Discussion : Discuss these Research Topics
Research one of the following geometrical ideas and describe it to your group :
1. taxicab geometry,
2. sperical geometry,
3. fractals,
4. the Koch snowflake.

42.2 Circle Geometry

42.2.1 Terminology

The following is a recap of terms that are regularly used when referring to circles.

arc An arc is a part of the circumference of a circle.
chord A chord is defined as a straight line joining the ends of an arc.
radius The radius, r, is the distance from the centre of the circle to any point on the circum-
ference.

diameter The diameter ø is a special chord that passes through the centre of the circle. The
diameter is the straight line from a point on the circumference to another point on the
circumference, that passes through the centre of the circle.

segmebt A segment is the part of the circle that is cut off by a chord. A chord divides a circle
into two segments .

tangent A tangent is a line that makes contact with a circle at one point on the circumference.
(AB is a tangent to the circle at point P. 42.2.2 Axioms
An axiom is an established or accepted principle. For this section, the following are accepted as
axioms.

1. The Theorem of Pythagoras, which states that the square on the hypotenuse of a right-
angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides. In △ABC, this
means that AB2 + BC2 = AC2 Figure 42.2: A right-angled triangle

2. A tangent is perpendicular to the radius, drawn at the point of contact with the circle.

42.2.3 Theorems of the Geometry of Circles
A theorem is a general proposition that is not self-evident but is proved by reasoning (these
proofs need not be learned for examination purposes).

Theorem 6. The line drawn from the centre of a circle, perpendicular to a chord, bisects the
chord.

Proof: Consider a circle, with centre O. Draw a chord AB and draw a perpendicular line from the
centre of the circle to intersect the chord at point P.

The aim is to prove that AP = BP

1. △OAP and △OBP are right-angled triangles.
2. OA = OB as both of these are radii and OP is common to both triangles.

Apply the Theorem of Pythagoras to each triangle, to get:
OA2 = OP2 + AP2
OB2 = OP2 + BP2

However, OA = OB. So,
OP2 + AP2 = OP2 + BP2 AP2 = BP2
and AP = BP

This means that OP bisects AB.

Theorem 7. The line drawn from the centre of a circle, that bisects a chord, is perpendicular
to the chord.
Proof: Consider a circle, with centre O. Draw a chord AB and draw a line from the centre of the circle
to bisect the chord at point P.

The aim is to prove that OP ⊥ AB
In △OAP and △OBP,

1. AP = PB (given)
3. OP is common to both triangles. △OAP ≡ △OBP (SSS). Theorem 8. The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre of the circle.
Proof: Consider a circle. Draw a chord AB. Draw a line PQ perpendicular to AB such that PQ bisects
AB at point P. Draw lines AQ and BQ.

The aim is to prove that Q is the centre of the circle, by showing that AQ = BQ.
In △OAP and △OBP,

1. AP = PB (given) 3. QP is common to both triangles. △QAP ≡ △QBP (SAS).

From this, QA = QB. Since the centre of a circle is the only point inside a circle that has points
on the circumference at an equal distance from it, Q must be the centre of the circle.

Exercise: Circles I
1. Find the value of x:  Theorem 9. The angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle is double the size of the
angle subtended by the same arc at the circumference of the circle.
Proof: Consider a circle, with centre O and with A and B on the circumference. Draw a chord AB.
Draw radii OA and OB. Select any point P on the circumference of the circle. Draw lines PA
and PB. Draw PO and extend to R.

The aim is to prove that  (exterior angle = sum of interior opp. angles)
But, (△AOP is an isosceles △) Similarly, So, Exercise: Circles II
1. Find the angles (a to f) indicated in each diagram: Theorem 10. The angles subtended by a chord at the circumference of a circle on the same
side of the chord are equal.
Proof: Consider a circle, with centre O. Draw a chord AB. Select any points P and Q on the
circumference of the circle, such that both P and Q are on the same side of the chord. Draw
lines PA, PB, QA and QB.

The aim is to prove that   at centre = twice at circumference
and  at centre = twice at circumference Theorem 11. (Converse of Theorem 10) If a line segment subtends equal angles at two other
points on the same side of the line, then these four points lie on a circle.
Proof: Consider a line segment AB, that subtends equal angles at points P and Q on the same side of
AB.

The aim is to prove that points A, B, P and Q lie on the circumference of a circle.

By contradiction. Assume that point P does not lie on a circle drawn through points A, B and
Q. Let the circle cut AP (or AP extended) at point R. on same side of chord
but (given) but this cannot be true since  the assumption that the circle does not pass through P, must be false, and A, B, P and Q
lie on the circumference of a circle.

Exercise: Circles III
1. Find the values of the unknown letters. Cyclic quadrilaterals are quadrilaterals with all four vertices lying on the circumference of a circle.
The vertices of a cyclic quadrilateral are said to be concyclic.

Theorem 12. The opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary.
Proof: Consider a circle, with centre O. Draw a cyclic quadrilateral ABPQ. Draw AO and PO.

The aim is to prove that and . Theorem 13. (Converse of Theorem 12) If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary,
Proof: Consider a quadrilateral ABPQ, such that and .

The aim is to prove that points A, B, P and Q lie on the circumference of a circle.

By contradiction. Assume that point P does not lie on a circle drawn through points A, B and
Q. Let the circle cut AP (or AP extended) at point R. Draw BR.  the assumption that the circle does not pass through P, must be false, and A, B, P and Q
lie on the circumference of a circle and ABPQ is a cyclic quadrilateral.

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